University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Herbert S (1998) Police subculture revisited. Core quote: “About 1 percent of people who had face-to-face contacts with police said that officers used or threatened force. This paper explores racial differences in police use of force. If the public becomes polarized over issues related to the distribution of legal authority, the government may lose legitimacy and find it difficult to fulfill its “regulatory role” in society (Sunshine and Tyler 2003, p. 515) without having to resort to the frequent use of physical coercion. If you are the copyright owner of this paper and no longer wish to have your work published on IvyPanda. On the other hand, some insist on using only safe techniques and tools. Police throughout the United States use firearms, beat detainees, use methods that make them choking, and use unreasonably brutal measures of physical pressure without sufficient justification. This paper explores racial differences in police use of force. The authors concluded that these tools would have a great impact on police methods in the future. An officer formulates and carries out a decision to use force against a citizen by encoding situational information, making a decision to act, developing a plan of action, and initiating action. (2014). IvyPanda. Bibliography: Alpert, Geoffrey P., and Roger G. Dunham, Understanding Police Use of Force: Officers, Suspects, and Reciprocity. Accordingly, our research questions are aimed at understanding how use of force policies, police violence, and public health intersect. In such events, therefore, the point of the police is to stop – or at the very least – freeze a moment in time in order for the courts to gain the opportunity to properly adjudicate the case. He concluded that CEWs are very convenient law-enforcement tools, and erroneous information should be excluded from the constructive discussion on this issue. The information presented below is a Several classic police scholars have developed occupational templates to help describe the circumstances under which some police officers engage in brutality. Anderson E (1999) Code of the street: decency, violence, and the moral life of the inner city. That is, in both cases described above, an argument can be made that both suspects-turned-victim forced a confrontation with the police, which led to the excessive force. The paper closes with a discussion of how to prevent and control the excessive use of force. In addition to recruitment, supervision of police officers is also critical in preventing excessive use of force – particularly in communities that historically have had difficult access to the conventional mechanisms of police accountability. IvyPanda. The man leads them on a 5-min foot pursuit through alleys, over fences, and across a vacant lot until they finally catch him in an open field. This paper provides descriptive estimates of the national prevalence of fatal police violence. Free research papers are not written to satisfy your specific instructions. In: Manning PK, Van Maanen J (eds) Policing: a view from the street. The suspect, in fact, used physical force to prevent his apprehension, swinging, kicking, and striking the officers as they attempted to subdue him. View POLICE USE OF FORCE TRAINING Research Papers on Academia.edu for free. Copyright © 2020 - IvyPanda is a trading name of Edustream This research paper on Police Force in Interactions with Mentally Ill was written and submitted by your fellow student. This is IvyPanda's free database of academic paper samples. What’s your deadline? The author stated that there is abundant evidence that ExSD developed in people who came into contact with the police that applied TASER to them. The research also considered the nature of training required to facilitate the development of these skills/abilities. Police Patrol - Police Patrol Research Papers discuss a sample order placed that requires two journal articles, and provides specific questions that need to be answered. Previous research regarding police use-of-force incidents has typically categorized use of. Although the most participants were relatively satisfied with such interactions, 32% stated that these were negative life experiences (Livingston et al., 2014). (2020) 'Police Force in Interactions with Mentally Ill'. When focusing on the last point in the encounter – i.e., the instance immediately preceding the shooting – the force used may be justifiable since the police were compelled to protect their lives and perhaps the lives of bystanders. It is common knowledge that at times, some police officers use more force than is necessary on suspects they encounter; some engage in profit-motivated misconduct and then lie on the witness stand to protect their corrupt enterprises; and these practices often take place in the most socially and economically vulnerable communities (Kane 2002). If you need help writing your assignment, please use our research paper writing service and buy a paper on any topic at affordable price. The studies explored a variety of topics, ranging from media coverage of force to characteristics of deadly force encounters and many issues in between. As the above discussion should suggest, police brutality is physical force that breaches the con fines of legally permissible physical coercion. Adding controls that account for important context and civilian behavior reduces, but cannot fully explain, these disparities. The confidence that officers placed in their ability to freely “punish” suspects who committed affronts against police authority was perhaps best illustrated by the routine exchanges among officers via their mobile data terminals in which anecdotes describing violent activities – often in racist terminology – were openly exchanged (see: Independent Commission (1991)). In each event, the triggering incident was related to some form of police abuse, and all post-riot analyses identified abusive police practices, largely in communities characterized by racially concentrated economic resource deprivation and social marginalization, as major causal factors (see: Independent Commission 1991; Kerner Commission 1968; Skolnick and Fyfe 1993). Moreover, they offer insight into how some officers who may be disinclined to use brutality on suspects may operate in layered contexts that favor, or even expect, them to use excessive against certain suspects under certain circumstances. On non-lethal uses of force, blacks and Hispanics are more than fifty percent more likely to experience some form of force in interactions with police. The exact wording of the force factor used in this particular paper was derived from Terrill et al. The events described in incident #2 suggest perhaps a less ambiguous evaluation of the use of excessive force. Conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) is one of the most widely used by security forces instruments. EXCESSIVE FORCE lice use physical force and that it is frequently perceived as excessive. Bantam Books, New York, Klockars C (1985) The idea of police. In this work, the authors demonstrated the results of community-based participatory research. However, some specialists doubt this information and call for further research. The authors emphasized the importance of the improvement of a procedural justice framework for officers that interact with mentally ill people. Research Method The study described 8 cases of unexpected cardiac arrest occurred due to the electric impulses produced by a TASER (Zipes, 2014). This inciting incident led to 6 days of rioting in Watts, leading to 34 deaths, 1,032 injuries, and over 3,000 arrests (Barnhill 2010). For example, the archetypal officer in Muir’s typology was the “professional” – i.e., a collective group of officers who could place themselves psychologically in the life circumstances of the suspects they encountered, and although professionals did not care to use force to resolve most conflicts during their engagements with members of the public, they used force when necessary to stop conflict, protect lives, and restore order. The researchers interviewed 60 mentally ill people that experienced police interventions. Police Use Of Force Essay, Research Paper As Robert Cover established in his essay, Violence and the Word, violence is an integral aspect of legal practices. This is a public problem we shouldn't leave behind. Once these types of force are defined, the paper focuses on excessive force, also commonly referred to as police brutality (e.g., Skolnick and Fyfe 1993). Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, Westley W (1970) Violence and the police. This method allows gathering relevant data in order to conduct a thorough analysis of the issue. ), often for their stated positions on certain issues, such as violent crime, fear of crime, urban disorder, etc. Templates, such as Muir’s (1977) extortionate transaction model, Van Maanen’s (1978) “asshole” perspective, Herbert’s (1997) identification of workgroup “normative orders,” and Skolnick and Fyfe’s (1993) elaboration of the “siege” mentality, show that police brutality may be influenced at every level of a police officer’s contextual occupational life. These events tended to trigger an uncharacteristic response in the officer – perhaps due to family history or other personal experience – leading him to take on the attributes of the enforcer: He was quick to use violence as an initial response when contacting an alleged domestic or sexual assault offender. For example, in the US, the African Importantly – and as shown in Incident #2 – when officers label a suspect an asshole, and to the extent that the officers use brutality to redress the affront, they often do so to impose police authority typically at the expense of formal sanctioning (e.g., arrest). Toch argued that FTOs serve a crucial organizational role because, among other functions, they help probationary police officers practice their recently acquired skills in live settings while under highly structured supervision. Even after the suspect is securely cuffed and clearly incapacitated, the other officer punches him with a closed fist in the kidney two times just after the other officer pulled him from the ground. They might arrive on the scene to find an agitated man pacing in his front yard with a pistol in hand. Excessive use of force will be minimized only if governing boards select chief administrators who are actively interested in controlling and preventing excessive use of force. Police use of force is the application in a law enforcement capacity of physical or psychological coercion against citizens. Police Brutality In the recent years, the problem of police brutality and excessive use of force has been on the rise especially in the United States. At the very least, Muir’s typology provides a useful taxonomy for efficiently describing certain officer characteristics that are easily recognized – i.e., enforcer. Weber’s arguments are made salient by Kubrin and Weitzer (2003) and Kane (2005): Failure of the police to “govern” effectively the territories they serve may lead to noncompliance on the part of people who reside in communities characterized by the perceptions of police abuse of authority. Once the chief administrator implements an infrastructure of progressive policy and gains the “buy-in” of line officers, the message of progressive policing must filter through all layers of the police organization. Whereas police officers usually have little or no cause to use coercion against know nothings, and they generally use coercion only as necessary to control and/or gain the compliance of suspicious persons, they may use coercion – i.e., force – against those labeled assholes as a retaliatory mechanism to redress an affront to an officer’s authority (Van Maanen 1978). This is in part because of selection, and in part because researchers often observe only interactions that end in use of force, necessitating nontrivial benchmarking assumptions. I am just taking my buddy home.” The officer again requests the young man’s license, and although the driver complies, he does so slowly. Other studies show that CEWs are widely used by police officers during law-enforcement activities. Thus, despite the procedural and legal constraints (discussed in the following section) placed on officers’ authority on the use of physical coercion, the sociology of use of force encounters often challenges society’s definition of the excessive use of force, particularly when the force may have been used on someone who at least initially defied the police. Successfully preventing the use of excessive force by police likely requires a multilayered approach that considers the social ecology of the total police organization. Both officers engage the suspect in chase. ensure the integrity of our platform while keeping your private information safe. Chief administrators for police departments are usually chosen by the elected bodies of local governments (e.g., city councils, county boards of supervisors, etc. Scientists argue their effect on the people’s health. The writer is providing … For present purposes, Kane found that in economically stable communities, police misconduct had no effect on violent crime. The Court reasoned that when police officers become involved in violent or potentially violent encounters, they frequently have just seconds to decide how to apply coercion, often in self-defense and/or in the defense of others. On non-lethal uses of force, blacks and Hispanics are more than fifty percent more likely to experience some form of force in interactions with police. MIT Press, Cambridge, Wood DB (2002) L.A.’s darkest days. Retrieved 2 Nov 2012. As noted in the opening pages of this research paper, police brutality – or excessive use of force – occurs for myriad reasons across multiple levels of analysis: the psychological, sociological, social contextual, and organizational. The systematically cruel police officers make up only a small part of the police force. Learn how to educate your community about police use of force, the risks unarmed individuals pose, research on police shooting accuracy and commandments for cops after use of deadly force. “Police officers should use only the amount of force necessary to control an incident, effective arrest, or protect themselves or others from harm or death.” (National Institute of Justice) Unfortunately, at times there are some police officers have felt that they are above this rule and have used excessive force in unnecessary situations. This distrust stemmed from perceived abuses – including brutality – of community residents by police over a number years. These so-called screening-out practices are rarely evidence-based; and they are often not followed consistently over time or across police recruiters or background officers. From the description of events in incident #2, the officer clearly chose the latter by using physical coercion to neutralize the young man’s defiance. Unnecessary force usually represents the proper use of force at the immediate moment of application, but which could have been avoided had officers not allowed, or caused, the incident to escalate (Fyfe 1986). Appropriate implementation of use of force by police is important not only to maintain law and order of the state but also make public perception, attitude and behavior towards the police and the government (Belur, 2010, p.1). On non-lethal uses of force, blacks and Hispanics are more than fifty percent more likely to experience some form of force in interactions with police. ⏰ Let's see if we can help you! Therefore, it is highly necessary to continue research in this area to collect more relevant data that will help to draw firm conclusions. However, such tools could cause severe health problems. Before trying to define the excessive use of force by police, the reader might first start with a more fundamental question: Why do we have the police in our society? An officer formulates and carries out a decision to use force against a citizen by encoding situational information, making a decision to act, developing a plan of action, and initiating action. Empirical findings support this claim: In their study of career ending misconduct in the New York City Police Department, Kane and White (2012) found that from 1975 to 1998, as the NYPD became increasingly racially and ethnically diverse, it also became better behaved. Perhaps the most obvious consequences of police brutality are the direct effects endured by victims. In: Dunham R, Alpert GP (eds) Critical issues in policing: contemporary readings, 5th edn. He concluded that the most of the presented information about possible dysfunctions and health damage associating with TASER devices is not reliable. Technologies LLC, a company registered in Wyoming, USA. The officer then drags the young man back around the front of the truck, opens the driver’s side door, and roughly deposits the young man back into the truck, slamming the door closed. In the “everyday” sense, citizen’s noncompliance may manifest in the form of people failing to readily yield to police authority during traffic stops and stopand-frisk events – both of which may create a context of hostility and distrust on the part of the police and members of the public. Livingston, J. D., Desmarais, S. L., Greaves, C., Parent, R., Verdun-Jones, S., & Brink, J. New York: W.W. Norton & Company 42 U.S.C. } TASER is a popular brand of a convenient electroshock device. In economically disadvantaged, and “extremely” economically disadvantaged, communities, police misconduct (including violence) led to subsequent increases in violent crime. 2018 U. Ill. L. Rev. The research conducted over the last 30 years on police use of force consistently calls for improved data collection at the local and national level. Group Threat, Police Officer Diversity and the Deadly Use of Police Force Columbia Public Law Research Paper No. This issue became even more controversial when it involved people with mental disorders. "Police Force in Interactions with Mentally Ill." December 24, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/police-force-in-interactions-with-mentally-ill/. As more officers arrived on scene, the crowd of bystanders also grew until someone finally began throwing bottles and other objects at the officers, who continued their struggle to subdue Frye (Barnhill 2010). Also, the article revealed some statistics regarding the use of TASER devices. Muir (1977) noted that, unlike the professionals, enforcers usually lacked the communication skills necessary to de-escalate and/or otherwise avoid the need to use force in certain circumstances. The Commission, Los Angeles, Jacob H (1971) Black and white perceptions of justice in the city. An extensive survey conducted jointly by the MIT, University of California, the University of Washington and the Harvard Medical School surveyed emergency physicians for cases of patients subjected to excessive police force. Evaluating the use of excessive force by the police tends to be much more difficult than other forms of misconduct, such as profit motivated corruption. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 94–112, Tyler T (1990) Why people obey the law. Police department hiring practices are generally designed to screen out undesirable applicants, which is substantively different from trying to screen in desirable applicants. Suddenly, the officer reaches in through the window, grabs the young man by the hair, and swiftly pulls him through the window and out onto the street. In addition, evidence suggests that when line officers are involved in the development of use of force policies and field tactics designed to reduce police officer violence (i.e., Fyfe 1997), then the use of force within departments tends to decrease, partly because police officers view themselves as contributors to the policy development process, rather than simply as people who need to be controlled. Police use of force research paper >>> next John mongan essay Admissions essay on the person you admire same is with me and the person that influenced me the most and whom i admire is my father. However, TASER chest shots were banned. To provide a framework for assessing the appropriateness of the use of force, the Supreme Court applied an “objective reasonableness” standard (via the Search and Seizure Clause of the Fourth Amendment) in the case Graham v. Connor (1989), holding that the legality of the use of force must be evaluated based on the judgment of a “reasonable” officer at the scene of the event rather than through a “retrospective” lens. Our research led to 22 articles with information relevant to the subject of police use of force. Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology, 11(1), 53-64. Moreover, to the extent that the excessive use of force is a relatively rare event within police organizations, it is difficult to accurately predict who might have become “problem” officers over the course of their careers were they allowed to join the force. At their worst, police use their coercive authority in ways that abuse, denigrate, and otherwise “tread on the human dignity” (Carter 1985, p. 322) of people they encounter. The authors outlined the widespread application of this device, underlying cases with mentally ill people. The officers were probably justified in the use of their batons while the suspect was fighting them, but what about the subsequent kicks and blows once the suspect was handcuffed and effectively restrained? Herbert (1998, p. 347) observes that officer workgroups place differential values on the normative orders in ways that “provide guidelines and justifications for” workgroup enforcement activities. Law Soc Rev 37:513–547, Terrill W (2001) Police coercion. Although no identified studies have found reliable empirical support for Muir’s typology (see, for example, Hochstedler (1981)), none has tested the typology in a setting that replicates that in which Muir conducted his research. In addition, the authors emphasized the significance of further research in this area. Thus, and as Muir notes, enforcers were problematic to police workgroups partly because they frequently engaged in excessive force, and partly because they often caused potentially violent encounters to escalate into actual violent encounters. Get discount 10% for the first order. For present purposes, Herbert notes that normative orders – such as law and safety or law and competence – may conflict with one another as officers use their coercive authority to satisfy one normative order (e.g., competence), perhaps at the expense of another (e.g., law or bureaucratic control). After a few hundred yards, and two siren “chirps,” the driver of the pickup truck finally pulls to the curb. Seventy Western Australia Police … ... police brutality is defined as the use of excessive and/ or unnecessary force by police when dealing with civilians. As a result, officers in such locations are often made to believe that the only way for them to maintain order is through the use of highly aggressive enforcement strategies that may translate into excessive force. (2014). There is no clear definition of use of force because the terms are subjective. Although the examination of unnecessary force is largely beyond the scope of this research paper, it is important to at least identify because (1) it represents a component of the overall use of force construct, and (2) likely happens more frequently than does excessive force, often without the subsequent application of accountability remedies (Fyfe 1986). When considering, however, the events that led to the shooting, professional incompetence left the officers at risk of being shot in the first place. Though perhaps commonly believed, police officers are not required to match a suspect’s resistance incrementally with force that follows a use of force continuum (Graham v. Connor 1989). 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